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Décodage itératif pour les codes LDPC au-delà de la propagation de croyances.

Abstract : At the heart of modern coding theory lies the fact that low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes can be efficiently decoded by message-passing algorithms which are traditionally based on the belief propagation (BP) algorithm. The BP algorithm operates on a graphical model of a code known as the Tanner graph, and computes marginals of functions on the graph. While inference using BP is exact only on loop-free graphs (trees), the BP still provides surprisingly close approximations to exact marginals on loopy graphs, and LDPC codes can asymptotically approach Shannon's capacity under BP decoding. However, on finite-length codes whose corresponding graphs are loopy, BP is sub-optimal and therefore gives rise to the error floor phenomenon. The error floor is an abrupt degradation in the slope of the error-rate performance of the code in the high signal-to-noise regime, where certain harmful structures generically termed as trapping sets present in the Tanner graph of the code, cause the decoder to fail. Moreover, the effects of finite precision that are introduced during hardware realizations of BP can further contribute to the error floor problem. In this dissertation, we introduce a new paradigm for finite precision iterative decoding of LDPC codes over the Binary Symmetric channel (BSC). These novel decoders, referred to as finite alphabet iterative decoders (FAIDs) to signify that the message values belong to a finite alphabet, are capable of surpassing the BP in the error floor region. The messages propagated by FAIDs are not quantized probabilities or log-likelihoods, and the variable node update functions do not mimic the BP decoder, which is in contrast to traditional quantized BP decoders. Rather, the update functions are simple maps designed to ensure a higher guaranteed error correction capability by using the knowledge of potentially harmful topologies that could be present in a given code. We show that on several column-weight-three codes of practical interest, there exist 3-bit precision FAIDs that can surpass the BP (floating-point) in the error floor without any compromise in decoding latency. Hence, they are able to achieve a superior performance compared to BP with only a fraction of its complexity. Additionally in this dissertation, we propose decimation-enhanced FAIDs for LDPC codes, where the technique of decimation is incorporated into the variable node update function of FAIDs. Decimation, which involves fixing certain bits of the code to a particular value during the decoding process, can significantly reduce the number of iterations required to correct a fixed number of errors while maintaining the good performance of a FAID, thereby making such decoders more amenable to analysis. We illustrate this for 3-bit precision FAIDs on column-weight-three codes. We also show how decimation can be used adaptively to further enhance the guaranteed error correction capability of FAIDs that are already good on a given code. The new adaptive decimation scheme proposed has marginally added complexity but can significantly improve the slope of the error floor performance of a particular FAID. On certain high-rate column-weight-three codes of practical interest, we show that adaptive decimation-enhanced FAIDs can achieve a guaranteed error-correction capability that is close to the theoretical limit achieved by maximum-likelihood decoding.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 1, 2013 - 10:13:23 AM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 2:46:00 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, August 2, 2013 - 4:05:05 AM


  • HAL Id : tel-00819417, version 1


Shiva K. Planjery. Décodage itératif pour les codes LDPC au-delà de la propagation de croyances.. Théorie de l'information [cs.IT]. Université de Cergy Pontoise, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : ⟩. ⟨tel-00819417⟩



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