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Conception d'un convertisseur de puissance pour véhicules électriques multi-sources

Abstract : The use of many energy sources of different kind in a electrical vehicle (EV) needs the adoption of static converters. These can have the function of either conditioning energy or driving the electrical machines of the vehicle. EV’s generally have a DC bus of some hundred volts, whose stability is ensured by a set of boost converters, since the voltage level of the several sources is as low as about some tens of volts. During frequent start/stop phases of EV’s in urban mode, energy sources can feed the motors directly without using the converters. On the basis of this consideration this thesis proposes a novel converter topology adopting a variable DC voltage level. In this approach the lowest level of the DC bus is determined as a function of the voltages available from the sources and of the required speed (back fem of the traction motor). In this way the variable step-up voltage ratio is minimal at low speeds of the EV in urban mode and maximal at higher speeds in motorway modes. This would result in an energy efficiency improvement of the sources-motors system, especially in urban mode. On the other hand the use of this EV demands some constraints as for the service continuity of the main functions of the EV, particularly the energy supply.This thesis proposes a novel power converter topology between the sources (a Fuel Cell System associated with a pack of Super-capacitors) and the loads ( traction motor and auxiliary supply system). This converter adopts a variable DC bus voltage and a redundant supply of the traction motor. After presenting the proposed converter in the framework of the state of the art, the analysis and modelling of its DC/DC part is presented, especially with simulation results of the different modes of operation. With this regard a complete simulation program has been developed down to the scale of switching pulses. Afterwards the control of the power devices has been developed by using the small signal control and the hysteresis control, triangular duty cycle and triangular sine. The simulation results of the main modes show the feasibility of the proposed power converter architecture. Finally an experimental rig has been set up, at reduced scale, for assessing the theoretical analysis. The experimental results of the DC/DC part yield satisfactory results thus proving the effectiveness of the design. Future work will focus on setting up e real scale converter, where the cooling system design will be added before realizing the mass board of the converter. This should lead up to the optimization of the volume occupied in the EV and to the improvement of the energy efficiency of the traction chain.
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Ahmed Boucherit. Conception d'un convertisseur de puissance pour véhicules électriques multi-sources. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011BELF0171⟩. ⟨tel-00823565⟩

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